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Read the latest stories about feminism on Time. Long before my daughter, Malala Yousafazi, was born, long before we began fighting for girls’ rights to education together, and long before the. The book expressed feminists' sense of injustice. Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early s and continuing to the present; as such, it coexists with third-wave feminism. Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues of equality beyond suffrage, such as ending gender discrimination. It's been years since women over 30 won the right to vote in Britain. But that didn't solve gender injustice – and young people today need feminism more than prsevinsq.tk: Kristin Aune.

10 Great Articles and Essays about Feminism

Feminism is a range of social movementspolitical movementsand ideologies that share a common goal: to define, feminism article, establish, and achieve the political, economic, personal, feminism article, and social equality of the sexes. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rightsincluding the right to voteto hold public office, to workto earn fair wagesequal pay and eliminate the gender pay gapto own propertyto receive educationto enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriageand to have maternity leave.

Feminists have also worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integrationfeminism article, and to protect women and girls from rapesexual harassmentand domestic violence, feminism article. Some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rightsparticularly in the Westwhere they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffragegender-neutral languagereproductive rights for women including access to contraceptives and abortionand the right to enter into contracts and own property.

Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims, feminism article.

Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism.

Most western feminism article historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not or do not feminism article the term to feminism article. Those historians use the label " protofeminist " to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movement is divided into four "waves".

The second wavethe women's liberation movementbegan in the s and campaigned for legal and social equality for women. In or arounda third wave was identified, characterized by a focus on individuality and diversity. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th and earlyth centuries, feminism article.

In the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women, feminism article. New legislation included the Custody of Infants Act in the UK, which introduced the tender years doctrine for child custody and gave women the right of feminism article of their children for the first time. Victoria passed legislation in and New South Wales in ; the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between and With the turn of the 19th century, activism focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffragethough some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexualreproductiveand economic rights too.

Women's suffrage the right to vote and stand for parliamentary office began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in ; South Australia followed suit in This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in In Britain the suffragettes and suffragists campaigned for feminism article women's vote, feminism article, and in the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property.

In this was extended to all women over Time named her one of the Most Important People of the 20th Centurystating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back.

Anthonywho each campaigned for the abolition of slavery before championing women's right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God. The term first wave was coined retroactively when the term second-wave feminism came into use, feminism article.

During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days' Reformfeminism article, Chinese feminists called for women's liberation from traditional roles and Neo-Confucian gender segregation, feminism article.

InQasim Aminconsidered the "father" of Arab feminism, feminism article, wrote The Liberation of Womenwhich argued for legal and social reforms for women. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in triggered the Iranian women's movementwhich aimed to achieve women's equality in educationmarriage, careers, and legal rights.

In Francewomen obtained the right to vote only with the Provisional Government of the French Republic of 21 April The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of proposed on 24 March to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by Fernand Grenierthey were given full citizenship, feminism article, including the right to vote. Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to In Mayfollowing the November elections feminism article, the sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the " gender gap ", feminism article, stating in Le Populaire that women had not voted in a feminism article way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes, feminism article.

During the baby boom period, feminism article, feminism waned in importance. Wars both World War I and World War II had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles. By the midth century, women still lacked significant rights. In Switzerlandwomen gained the right to vote in federal elections in ; [55] but in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only infeminism article, when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.

Three prior referendums held inand had failed to secure women's right to vote. Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of family laws which gave husbands control over their wives. Although by the 20th century coverture had been abolished in the UK and US, in many continental European countries married women still had very few rights.

For instance, in France married women did not receive the right to work without their husband's permission until Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early s [64] and continuing to the present; as such, it coexists with third-wave feminism.

Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues feminism article equality beyond suffrage, such as ending gender discrimination. Second-wave feminists see women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encourage feminism article to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political", which became synonymous with the second wave, feminism article.

Second- feminism article third-wave feminism in China has been characterized by a reexamination of women's roles during the communist revolution and other reform movements, and new discussions about whether women's equality has actually been fully achieved.

InPresident Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt initiated " state feminism ", which outlawed discrimination based on gender and granted women's suffrage, but also blocked political activism by feminist leaders.

In Latin Americarevolutions brought changes in women's status in countries such as Nicaraguawhere feminist ideology during the Sandinista Revolution aided women's quality of life but fell short of achieving a social and ideological change. The book is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States, feminism article.

Third-wave feminism is traced to the emergence of the Riot grrrl feminist punk subculture in Olympia, Washingtonin the early s, [72] [73] and to Anita Hill 's televised testimony in —to an all-male, all-white Senate Judiciary Committee —that Clarence Thomasfeminism article, nominated for the Supreme Court of the United Stateshad sexually harassed her.

The term third wave is credited to Rebecca Walkerwho responded to Thomas's appointment to the Supreme Court with an article in Ms. Let this feminism article of a woman's experience move you to anger. Turn that outrage into political power.

Do not vote for them unless they work for us. Do not have sex with them, do not break bread with them, do not nurture them if they don't prioritize our freedom to control our bodies and our lives. I am not a post-feminism feminist. I am the Third Wave. Third-wave feminism also sought to challenge or avoid what it deemed the second wave's essentialist definitions of femininitywhich, third-wave feminists argued, over-emphasized the experiences of upper middle-class white women, feminism article.

Third-wave feminists often focused on " micro-politics " and challenged the second wave's paradigm as to what was, or was not, good for women, and tended to use a post-structuralist interpretation feminism article gender feminism article sexuality. Standpoint theory is a feminist theoretical point of view stating that a person's social position influences their knowledge. This perspective argues that research feminism article theory treats women and the feminist movement as insignificant and refuses to see traditional science as feminism article. Fourth-wave feminism refers to a resurgence of interest in feminism that began around and is associated with the use of social media.

Its essence, she writes, is "incredulity that certain attitudes can still exist". Fourth-wave feminism is "defined by technology", according to Kira Cochraneand is characterized particularly by the use of FacebookTwitterInstagramYouTubeTumblrand blogs such as Feministing to challenge misogyny and further gender equality.

Feminism article that fourth-wave feminism article focus on include street and workplace harassmentcampus sexual assault and rape culture. Scandals involving the harassment, abuse, and murder of women and girls have galvanized the movement. These feminism article included the Delhi gang rapeJimmy Savile allegationsthe Bill Cosby allegationsIsla Vista killingstrial of Jian GhomeshiHarvey Weinstein feminism article and subsequent Weinstein effectand the Westminster sexual scandals.

In DecemberTime magazine chose several prominent female activists involved in the Feminism article movement, dubbed "the silence breakers", as Person of the Year.

The term postfeminism is used to describe a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism since the s. While not being "anti-feminist", postfeminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third- and fourth-wave feminist goals. The term was first used to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism, but it is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas.

Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropologysociologyeconomicsfeminism article, women's studiesliterary criticism[96] [97] art history[98] psychoanalysis [99] and philosophy. While providing a critique of these social and political relations, feminism article, much of feminist theory also focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests, feminism article.

Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotypingobjectification especially sexual objectificationfeminism article, oppressionfeminism article, and patriarchy. The first she calls "feminist critique", feminism article, in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena.

The second Showalter calls " gynocriticism ", in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning". However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright points out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the Anglophone world", feminism article. Some branches of feminism closely track the political leanings of the larger society, such as liberalism and conservatism, or focus on the environment.

Liberal feminism seeks individualistic equality of men and women through political and legal reform without altering the structure of society. Catherine Rottenberg has argued that the neoliberal shirt in Liberal feminism has led to that form of feminism being individualized rather than collectivized and becoming detached from social inequality. Radical feminism considers the male-controlled capitalist hierarchy as the defining feature of women's oppression and the total uprooting and reconstruction of society as necessary.

Libertarian feminism conceives of people as self-owners and therefore as entitled to freedom from coercive interference. Lesbian feminism is thus closely related. Other feminists criticize separatist feminism as sexist. Rosemary Hennessy and Chrys Ingraham say that materialist forms of feminism grew out of Western Marxist thought and have inspired a number of different but overlapping movements, all of which are involved in a critique of capitalism and are focused on ideology's relationship to women, feminism article.

Sara Ahmed argues that Black and Postcolonial feminisms pose a challenge "to some of the organizing premises of Western feminist thought. Since that time, women in feminism article nations and former colonies and who are of colour or various ethnicities or living in poverty have proposed additional feminisms. In the late twentieth century various feminists began to argue that gender roles are socially constructed[] [] and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories.

Feminist feminism article on transgender people differ. Some feminists do not view trans feminism article as women, [] [] believing that they have male privilege due to their sex assignment at birth.

Riot grrrls took an anti-corporate stance of self-sufficiency and self-reliance. According to poll, 18 percent of Americans consider themselves feminists, while 85 percent reported they believe in "equality for women".

Despite the popular belief in equal rights, 52 percent did not identify as feminist, 26 percent were unsure, and four percent provided no response. Sociological research feminism article that, in the US, increased educational feminism article is associated with greater support for feminist issues. In addition, politically liberal people are more likely to support feminist ideals compared to those who are conservative. Feminist views on sexuality vary, and have differed by historical period and by cultural context.

Feminist attitudes to female sexuality have taken a few different directions. Matters feminism article as the sex industrysexual representation in the media, feminism article, and issues regarding consent to sex under conditions of male dominance have been particularly controversial among feminism article. This debate has culminated in the late s and the s, in what came to be known as the feminism article sex warswhich pitted anti-pornography feminism against sex-positive feminismand parts of the feminist movement were deeply divided by these debates.


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The theme of Feminism is present in Ariel Dorfman’s play, Death and the Maiden, and Laura Esquivel’s novel, Like Water for Chocolate. Both works showcase strong female protagonists endeavouring to escape and solve the issues of their Read Article». Sep 04,  · News about women's rights. Commentary and archival information about the feminist movement from The New York Times. prsevinsq.tk no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. Feminism and Abortion by Martha Bayles Why pro-choice arguments reflect the ambitions, hypocrisies, and contradictions of contemporary feminism Trickle-Down Feminism by Sarah Jaffe While we all worry about the glass ceiling, there are millions of women standing in .