An Essay on the Principle of Population - Wikipedia

 

essays on population

Free Population papers, essays, and research papers. The South: Educating a Growing Hispanic Population - Introduction For many years the United States minority population mostly consisted of African Americans. Population Growth Essay. POPULATION GROWTH AND THE PRESSURES IT PLACES ON EARTHS RESOURCES World population has rapidly increased in the last century and has now reached a staggering seven billion, raising alarming concern for the sustainability of our planet. We have to give more attention to the growth of population and its relation to the problem of unemployment and capital formation in the country. Effects. The abnormal population growth is commonly believed to be one of the principal causes of India’s poverty and very low standard of living for her people.


Essay on Human Population Growth - Words | Cram


The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously inessays on population, [1] but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus. The book predicted a grim future, as population would increase geometricallydoubling every 25 years, [2] but food production would only grow arithmeticallywhich would result in famine and starvation, unless births were controlled.

While it was not the first book on population, it was revised for over 28 years and has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Malthus's book fuelled debate about the size of the population in the Kingdom of Great Britain and contributed to the passing of the Census Act This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, essays on population, starting in and continuing every ten years to the present, essays on population.

The book's 6th edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.

A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population. In essence, Malthus feared that continued population growth would lend itself to poverty and famine. InMalthus published, under the same title, a heavily revised second edition of his work, essays on population. In32 years after the first edition, Malthus published a condensed version entitled A Summary View on the Principle of Populationwhich included responses to criticisms of the larger work.

Between and Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, and to convey changes in his own perspectives on the subject. He wrote the original text in reaction to the optimism of his father and his father's associates notably Rousseau regarding the future improvement of society. Malthus also constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin — and of the Marquis de Condorcet — Malthus regarded ideals of future improvement in the lot of humanity with scepticism, essays on population, considering that throughout history a segment of every human population seemed relegated to poverty.

He explained this phenomenon by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress:. This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition", essays on population. The way in which these effects are produced seems to be this.

We will suppose the means of subsistence in any country just equal to the easy support of its inhabitants. The constant effort towards population The food therefore which before supported seven millions must now be divided among seven millions and a half or eight millions. The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress. The number of labourers also being above the proportion of the work in the market, the price of labour must tend toward a decrease, while the price of provisions would at the same time tend to rise, essays on population.

The labourer therefore must work harder to earn the same as he did before. During this season of distress, the discouragements to marriage, and the difficulty of essays on population a family are so great that population is at a stand.

In the mean time the cheapness of labour, the plenty of labourers, and the necessity of an increased industry amongst them, encourage cultivators to employ more labour upon their land, to turn up fresh soil, and to manure and improve more completely what is already in tillage, till ultimately the means of subsistence become in the same proportion to the population as at the period from which we set out. The situation of the labourer being then again tolerably comfortable, the restraints to population are in some degree loosened, and the same retrograde and progressive movements with respect to happiness are repeated.

Malthus also saw that societies through history had experienced at one time or another epidemics, famines, or wars: events that masked the fundamental problem of essays on population overstretching their resource limitations:.

The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, essays on population, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction, and often finish the dreadful work themselves.

But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemics, essays on population, pestilence, and essays on population advance in terrific array, and sweep off essays on population thousands and tens of thousands. Should success be still incomplete, gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow levels the population with the food of the world.

The rapid increase in the global population of the past century exemplifies Malthus's predicted population patterns; it also appears to describe socio-demographic dynamics of complex pre-industrial societies. These findings are the basis for neo-Malthusian modern mathematical models of long-term historical dynamics. Malthus made the specific prediction that world population would fall below a line going upward from its then current population of one billion, adding one billion every 25 years.

He wrote:. If the subsistence for man that the earth affords was to be increased every twenty-five years by a quantity equal to what the whole world at present produces, this would allow the power of production in the earth to be absolutely unlimited, and its ratio of increase much greater than we can conceive that any possible exertions of mankind could make it To date, world population has remained below his predicted line.

However, the current rate of increase since is over two billion per 25 years, more than twice the Malthus predicted maximum rate. At the same time, essays on population, world hunger has been in decline.

The highest UN projection has population continuing at this rate and surpassing the Malthus predicted line. This high projection supposes today's growth rate is sustainable to essays on population year and beyond. Malthus argued that two types of checks hold population within resource limits: positive checks, which raise the death rate; and preventive ones, essays on population, which lower the birth rate.

The positive checks include hunger, disease and war; the preventive checks, birth control, postponement of marriage, and celibacy. For example, he satirically criticized the notion that agricultural improvements could expand without limit:. If the progress were really unlimited it might be increased ad infinitum, but this is so gross an absurdity that we may be quite sure that among plants, as well as among animals, there is a limit to improvement, though we do not exactly know where it is.

It is probable that the gardeners who contend for flower prizes have often applied stronger dressing without success. At the same time, it would be highly presumptuous in any man to say, that he had seen the finest carnation or anemone that could ever be made to grow, essays on population. He might however assert without the smallest chance of being contradicted by a future fact, that no carnation or anemone could ever by cultivation be increased to the size of a large cabbage; and yet there are assignable quantities much greater than a cabbage.

No man can say that he has seen the largest ear of wheat, or the largest oak that could ever grow; but he might easily, and with perfect certainty, name a point of magnitude, at which they would not arrive. In all these cases therefore, a careful distinction should be made, between an unlimited progress, and a progress where the limit is merely undefined.

He also commented on the notion that Francis Galton later called eugenics :. Whether intellect could be communicated may be a matter of essays on population but size, strength, beauty, complexion, and perhaps longevity are in a degree transmissible As the human race, however, could not be improved in this way without condemning all the bad specimens to celibacy, it is not probable that an attention to breed should ever become general". In the second essays on population subsequent editions Malthus put more emphasis on moral restraint, essays on population.

By that he meant the postponement of marriage until people could support a family, coupled with strict celibacy sexual abstinence until that time.

Malthus emphasises the difference between government-supported welfare, and public charity. He proposed the gradual abolition of poor laws by gradually reducing the number of persons qualifying for relief.

Relief essays on population dire distress would come from private charity. It offended Malthus that critics claimed he lacked a caring attitude toward the situation of the poor.

In the edition his concern for the poor shows in passages such as the following:. Nothing is so common as to hear of encouragements that ought to be given to population. If the tendency of mankind to increase be so great as I have represented it to be, it may appear strange that this increase does not come when it is thus repeatedly called for.

The true reason is, that the demand for a greater population is made without preparing the funds necessary to support it. Increase the demand for agricultural labour by promoting cultivation, and with it consequently increase the produce of the essays on population, and ameliorate the condition of the labourer, and no apprehensions whatever need be entertained of the proportional increase of population. An attempt to effect this purpose in any other way is vicious, cruel, and tyrannical, and in any state of tolerable freedom cannot therefore succeed.

I have written a chapter expressly on the practical direction of our charity; and in detached passages elsewhere have paid a just tribute to the exalted virtue of benevolence. To those who have read these parts of my work, and have attended to the general tone and spirit of the whole, I willingly appeal, if they are but tolerably candid, against these charges Some, such as William Farr [13] and Karl Marx[14] argued that Malthus did not fully recognize the human capacity to increase food supply.

On this subject, however, essays on population, Essays on population had written: "The main peculiarity which distinguishes man from other animals, essays on population the means of his support, is the power which he possesses of very greatly increasing these means.

As a Christian and a clergyman, Malthus addressed the question of how an omnipotent and caring God could permit suffering. In the First Edition of his Essay Malthus reasoned that the constant threat of poverty and starvation served to teach the virtues of hard work and virtuous behaviour, essays on population.

Nevertheless, although the threat of poverty could be understood to essays on population a prod to motivate human industry, it was not God's will that man should suffer, essays on population. Malthus wrote that mankind itself was solely to blame for human suffering:. And if, in endeavouring to obey the command to increase and multiply, [19] we people it only with beings of this latter description and suffer accordingly, we have no right to impeach the justice of the command, but our irrational mode of executing it.

Malthus wrote of the relationship between population, real wages, and inflation. When the population of laborers grows faster than the production of food, real wages fall because the growing population causes the cost of living i. Difficulties of raising a family eventually reduce the rate of population growth, until the falling population again leads to higher real wages:. It very rarely happens that the nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same, while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually rising, essays on population.

This, indeed, will generally be the case, if the increase of manufactures and commerce be sufficient to employ the new labourers that essays on population thrown into the market, and to prevent the increased supply from lowering the money-price.

But an increased number of labourers receiving the same money-wages will necessarily, by their competition, increase the money-price of corn. This is, in fact, a real fall in the price of labour; and, during this period, the condition of the lower classes of the community must be gradually growing worse.

But the farmers and capitalists are growing rich from the real cheapness of labour, essays on population. Their increasing capitals enable them to employ a greater number of men; and, as the population had probably suffered some check from the greater difficulty of supporting a family, the demand for labour, after a certain period, would be great in proportion to the supply, and its price would of course rise, if left to find its natural level; and thus the wages of labour, and consequently the condition of the lower classes of society, might have progressive and retrograde movements, though the price of labour might never nominally fall.

In later editions of his essay, Malthus clarified his view that if society relied on human misery to limit population growth, then sources of misery e. On the other hand, "preventive checks" to essays on population that limited birthrates, such as later marriages, could ensure a higher standard of living for all, while also increasing economic stability. The full title of the first edition of Malthus' essay was "An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the Future Improvement of Society with remarks on the Speculations of Mr.

GodwinM. Condorcetessays on population, and Other Writers. William Godwin had published his utopian work Enquiry concerning Political Justice inwith later editions in and Also, Of Avarice and Profusion Malthus' remarks on Godwin's work spans chapters 10 through 15 inclusive out of nineteen, essays on population.

Godwin responded with Of Population Malthus' remarks on Condorcet's work spans chapters 8 and 9. This natural inequality of the two powers, of population, and of production of the earth, and that great law of our nature which must constantly keep their effects equal, form the great difficulty that appears to me insurmountable in the way to the perfectibility of society. The only authors from whose writings I had deduced the principle, which formed the main argument of the Essay, were Hume, Wallace, Adam Smith, and Dr, essays on population.

Chapters 1 and 2 outline Malthus' Principle of Population, and the unequal nature of food supply to population growth. The exponential nature of population growth is today known as the Malthusian growth model.

This aspect of Malthus' Principle of Population, together with his assertion that food supply was subject to a linear growth model, would remain unchanged in future editions of his essay.

 

Population Growth: Essay on Population Growth

 

essays on population

 

We have to give more attention to the growth of population and its relation to the problem of unemployment and capital formation in the country. Effects. The abnormal population growth is commonly believed to be one of the principal causes of India’s poverty and very low standard of living for her people. Population An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. Thomas Malthus London Printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul’s Church-Yard Population Growth Essay. POPULATION GROWTH AND THE PRESSURES IT PLACES ON EARTHS RESOURCES World population has rapidly increased in the last century and has now reached a staggering seven billion, raising alarming concern for the sustainability of our planet.